184.108.40.206 describe a real-time operating system
220.127.116.11 describe a network operating system
18.104.22.168 describe a batch processing operating system
Types of operating systems (Part 2)
An operating system is a system program that organises and controls the general operation of the computer.
Functions of an operating system:
- Provides an interface for computer interaction
- Control of inputs and outputs
- Interrupt handling
- Management of hardware and peripherals
- Error handling
- Management and loading of software
- Management of user accounts
- File utilities (copy, save, sort, delete)
- Processor management for multitasking
- Memory management
- Security (access rights, firewalls etc)
Real-time operating system (RTOS)
A real-time system is defined as a data processing system in which the time interval required to process and respond to inputs is so small that it controls the environment. The time taken by the system to respond to an input and display of required updated information is termed as the response time. So in this method, the response time is very less as compared to online processing.
Real-time systems are used when there are rigid time requirements on the operation of a processor or the flow of data and real-time systems can be used as a control device in a dedicated application. A real-time operating system must have well-defined, fixed time constraints, otherwise the system will fail.
Real-time operating systems are commonly used in life-saving situations. It is enough to consider examples:
- flight control system
- patient life support system in intensive care (heart rate monitoring)
- radar systems
- satellite monitoring systems
- oil refinery
- manufacture control
- computer games
- controlling robots
The advantages of real time operating systems are as follows
- Maximum consumption
- Task Shifting
- Focus On Application
- Error Free
- Memory Allocation
The disadvantages of real time operating systems are as follows
- Limited Tasks
- Use Heavy System Resources
- Complex Algorithms
- Device Driver And Interrupt signals
- Thread Priority
Useful article (in russian)
Network operating system
A Network Operating System runs on a server and provides the server the capability to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. The primary purpose of the network operating system is to allow shared file and printer access among multiple computers in a network, typically a local area network (LAN), a private network or to other networks.
Examples of network operating systems include Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, UNIX, Linux, Mac OS X, Novell NetWare, and BSD.
The advantages of network operating systems are as follows:
- Centralized servers are highly stable.
- Security is server managed.
- Upgrades to new technologies and hardware can be easily integrated into the system.
- Remote access to servers is possible from different locations and types of systems.
The disadvantages of network operating systems are as follows:
- High cost of buying and running a server.
- Dependency on a central location for most operations.
- Regular maintenance and updates are required.
Batch processing operating system
Batch processing is a technique in which an Operating System collects the programs and data together in a batch before processing starts.
An operating system does the following activities related to batch processing:
- The OS defines a job which has predefined sequence of commands, programs and data as a single unit.
- The OS keeps a number a jobs in memory and executes them without any manual information.
- Jobs are processed in the order of submission, i.e., first come first served fashion.
- When a job completes its execution, its memory is released and the output for the job gets copied into an output spool for later printing or processing.
- Batch processing takes much of the work of the operator to the computer.
- Increased performance as a new job get started as soon as the previous job is finished, without any manual intervention.
- Difficult to debug programs.
- A job could enter an infinite loop.
- Due to lack of protection scheme, one batch job can affect other pending jobs.
Additionally on teach-ict.com
Modes of operation
- Give definition for term "operating system".
- Name five types of OS.
- Explain defference between Real-time OS and Batch processing OS.
- Compare situations when we can use Network OS vs Real-time OS.
Test "Operating systems, application software and programming languages"