Operating systems describe the purpose and main functions of operating systems 

Operating systems 

Operating system - a system program that controls and organises the general operation of the computer and provide user interface. 

It manages input to and output from the processing unit, run applications and etc.

The OS acts like a bridge between the applications software and the computer hardware. Users need applications software to carry out tasks? the software needs the operating system in order to communicate with the hardware.

The main functions of the operating system:

  • Provides an interface for computer interaction
  • Control of inputs and outputs (Handling I/O operations)
  • Management of hardware and peripherals
  • Manage file system
  • Manage resources allocation
  • Memory management
  • Manage processor for multitasking
  • Management and loading of software
  • Error Detection and handling
  • Provide data integrity
  • Provide security 

more details

The OS controls the operation of the processor and memory, by managing the resources so that each application is allocated enough processor time and power, memory and hard drive space to complete its job. In this, the OS is like a referee, making sureeveryone plays a fair game.

The OS controls any peripherals, like printers, scanners, barcode readers that are attached to the computer. It will use specialised drivers to ensure that the right instructions are passed in a way that the device can operate.

The OS controls security - logins and sometimes basic firewalls and anti-virus facilities are run through the OS.

The OS provides a foundation for all application software to run, allowing software developers to write for an operating system rather than for a computer design, as was the case in the early years of computer development. This is because each OS has a standardised API (application program interface).

Examples of OS: Windows, Mac OS, Linux, Unix, MS-DOS, Android, iOS and other.

Types of Operating system (Part I)


  1. What is the relationship between operating systems and computer hardware?
  2. Explain the purpose of the operating system?
  3. Give three different types of management of either hardware or other resources that are performed by an operating system. 
  4. Main Goal of Operating System is to provide the ...
  5. There are common functions of different types of operating systems, such as ...


Ex. 1

Ex. 2

Ex. 3 (Author: Dyusegaliyeva Nassipzhan- CS teacher of NIS PhM Nur-Sultan)

Ex. 4 (Author: Adikova Aida - CS teacher of NIS PhM Nur-Sultan)


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