Blockchain technology

11.1.2.6 explain the function and operation of Blockchain technologies

Blockchain technology

blockchain is a decentralized, distributed, and oftentimes public, digital ledger that is used to record transactions across many computers so that any involved record cannot be altered retroactively, without the alteration of all subsequent blocks.

What are the features of Blockchain?

  • All transactions are written on the ledger
  • Transaction irrevocability
  • Distributed - means there is no central authority
  • Easy to share data on transactions, contracts, etc.
  • Encryption for privacy and security

The reliability of using a blockchain is that:

  • It is not owned by a single entity, so it is decentralized
  • The data is cryptographically stored inside
  • The blockchain is immutable, so no one can tamper (interfere) with the data that is inside the blockchain
  • The blockchain is transparent so you can track the data if they want to

Blockchain can be described as

  • collection of records
  • linked with each other
  • strongly resistant to alteration
  • protected using cryptography

The three pillars of Blockchain technology

The three main properties of Blockchain technology which have helped it gain widespread acclaim are as follows:

  1. Decentralization
  2. Transparency
  3. Immutability

Pillar #1: Decentralization

Before Bitcoin and BitTorrent, we were used to centralized services. The idea is very simple. You have a centralized object that stores all the data, and you will have to interact exclusively with this object to get the information you need.
Another example of a centralized system is banks. They hold all your money, and the only way to pay someone is through a bank.
The traditional client-server model is a great example of centralized service.

Centralized systems have a core authority that dictates the truth to other participants in the network.

Only privileged users or institutions can access transaction history or confirm new transactions.

 Decentralized systems do not have the power to dictate the truth to other network participants.

Each member of the network can access the transaction history or confirm new transactions.

Pillar #2: Transparency

One of the most interesting blockchain concepts is transparency. The blockchain provides privacy while being transparent. Why do you think this is happening?
The person's identity is encrypted and represented only by his public address. In the transaction "Anwar sent 3 BTC", you can see only "1MF1bhsFLkBzzz9vpFYEmvwT2TbyCt7NZJ sent 3 BTC".
The following screenshot of Ethereum transactions shows this:

This way, while a person's real identity is protected, you will still see all the transactions that were made to their public address. This level of transparency has never existed in the financial system before.

Pillar #3: Immutability

Immutability in the context of a blockchain means that once something has been entered into the blockchain, it cannot be changed. This prevents financial scams.
The reason the blockchain gets this property is due to the cryptographic hash function.
In simple terms, Hashing means taking an input string of any length and outputting an output of a fixed length.
In the context of cryptocurrencies like bitcoin, transactions are accepted as input and passed through a hashing algorithm (bitcoin uses SHA-256), which results in a fixed length result.


As you can see from the table, the output will always have a fixed length of 256 bits.
But even if you make a small change to your input, the changes that will be reflected in the hash will be huge. Example (SHA-256):

When entering, only the case of the first letter has changed, and the hash has changed radically.

 

Questions:

Exercises:

Research information on the application and prospects of using blockchain technology. Write down your opinion in 3-4 sentences.

Exam questions:

Question. Explain what is a Blockchain.(Marks: 2)
  • Answer. A: A blockchain is, an immutable time-stamped series record of data(1) that is distributed and managed by cluster of computers(1).
Question. Describe who controls the blockchain?(Marks: 2)
  • Answer. An open blockchain network has no central authority(1) — it is the very definition of a democratized system. Since it is a shared and immutable ledger, the information in it is open for anyone and everyone to see(1).
Question. Name three pillars of blockchain technology.(Marks: 3)
  • Answer. Decentralization(1)
    Transparency(1)
    Immutability(1)
Question. Describe where Blockchain technology is used. (Marks: 1)
  • Answer. Initially, used for Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies blockchain has now found use cases in several industries including finance, real estate, and health.(1)


 

Категория: Protection data | Добавил: bzfar77 (20.04.2021)
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